(Fenologi Pembungaan Tiga Varietas Kelapa Genjah Kopyor Pati)
Ismail Maskromo1,2, Hengki Novarianto1, dan Sudarsono2
1Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kelapa dan Palma Lain (Balitka), Manado.
2PMB Lab., Department Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, IPB, Jl. Meranti – Darmaga Kampus, Bogor 16680
Development of Kopyor coconut offers good prospects economically since this coconut is natural mutant originated from Indonesia. Increase in both Kopyor fruits and Kopyor heterozygote coconut seedlings could be done by controlled pollination. Therefore, information about flowering phenology for Kopyor coconut need to be investigated. This investigations were conducted by observing female flower numbers per bunch and flowering patterns of three Pati Dwarf Kopyor coconuts varieties (Brown, Green and Yellow) at the farmer’s garden (Desa Tayu, Pati-Jawa Tengah) and at Field Experiment Station (KP. Kima Atas, Balitka, Manado-North Sulawesi). Five provenances fom each varieties were selected. For each palm, three bunches were selected for observation. Results of the observation indicated that number of female flowers were differ among the three Pati Dwarf Kopyor coconut varieties evaluated. Moreover, Kopyor coconuts grown at KP. Kima have more female flowers than those grown at Kecamatan Tayu, Pati. Number of female flowers per bunch is an important character since it affects the potential number of harvested coconut fruits. Results of observations also indicated similarity of flowering pattern between Kopyor coconut grown at farmer’s garden, Pati-Central Java and those at KP. Kima Atas, Manado-North Sulawesi. Periode of male flower anthesis of Pati Dwarf Kopyor coconuts ranged from 17.5 – 23.3 days. On the other hand, receptive periode of female flower for these varieties were significantly different between the two locations. The receptive period for female flower of the tested Dwarf Kopyor coconuts in Kecamatan Tayu, Pati-Central Java were 3.6 – 4.0 days while that in KP. Kima Atas, Manado-North Sulawesi were 7.2 – 8.3 DAYS. The receptive periode for female flowers might be seasonally affected, that is shorter receptive period during dry season than that of wet one, respectively. In the two location tested, the receptive period of male and female flowers within single bunch were overlapped. Such overlapped may promote to the occurence of self pollination. However, the possibility of occuring cross pollination might still be possible because coconut flowers are monoecious and the flowers are open flowers. Based on these results, flowering phenologi of Kopyor coconut were affected by both the genotype and the local weather. The three Dwarf Kopyor coconut varieties are grouped as direct self-pollinating (direct autogamy) palm.
Keywords: Control pollination, Flowering period, monoecious, direct autogamy.
This paper was presented at: 2011 Indonesian Horticulture Society (Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia [PERHORTI] Seminar, Lembang. Bandung – 23-24 November 2011.